Wednesday, April 19, 2006


1. Harming the Earth: Several mega-banks have been targeted by activists concerning environmentally destructive projects they’re funding.
Better mega-banks: After a prolonged campaign spearheaded by Rainforest Action Network (RAN), JP Morgan Chase (owns Chase and Bank One), Bank of America, and Citibank adopted a new lending policy last spring that addresses global warming and deforestation, and recognizes the rights of indigenous nations.

Worst performers: Currently, RAN is poised to launch another campaign targeting other mega-banks that haven’t adopted the policy, including Wachovia, Wells Fargo, Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley (owns Discover), and Credit Suisse First Boston. RAN is also separately targeting Wells Fargo for financing illegal logging in Indonesia and Credit Suisse First Boston for funding an environmentally destructive Shell oil pipeline project on Russia’s Sakhalin Island. The pipelines are likely decimate the island’s fishing industry, which is the sole means of income for many locals. They could also damage habitat of the endangered western grey whale. Visit for more information.

3. Predatory lending: Predatory lending is a fast-growing practice in which financial institutions use high fees, exorbitant costs, and other unscrupulous lending practices to take advantage of targeted groups—often the elderly, students, and low-income people. In the case of credit cards, banks may market cards to these groups that “contain hidden transfer charges, exorbitant late fees, and exploding interest rates,” according to the Center for Responsible Lending (CRL).

It’s not just target groups that suffer from such practices. A Woodstock Institute report states that “the intricate web of penalties and fees implemented by the credit card industry may be one of the key factors for the high level of indebtedness among Americans. In January 2005, the average US household had seven credit cards and carried a balance of $14,000, the highest level of debt ever.”

Better mega-banks: To avoid predatory credit card practices, the Woodstock report indicates that you may be better off choosing cards from credit unions, rather than any of the mega-banks. “Credit cards issued by credit unions have similar purchase interest rates but come with fewer fees, lower fees, lower default rates, and conditions that are much clearer” to the consumer, it says.

Consumer Reports magazine looked into the fees and penalties imposed by mega-bank credit cards in its November 2005 issue. Its list of top ten most consumer-friendly credit cards includes: Town North, First Tennessee National Bank, Pulaski, Simmons First National, Target National, BB&T, Franklin Templeton Bank & Trust, RBC Centura, Commerce, and Zions.

Worst performers: Most mega-banks engage in predatory credit card practices, according to Consumer Reports. While CRL says that most have cleaned up their acts in terms of predatory mortgages and loans, the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) is still targeting Wells Fargo. Though ACORN says the bank has corrected many of its predatory practices, it says Wells Fargo still has not made reparation to victims of its predatory loans. ACORN also claims that the bank charges African Americans and Latinos higher loan rates than Caucasians.

Affinity Cards

Affinity cards are cards issued by a major bank that also bear the logo of a select charity or nonprofit. Each time you use an affinity card, the issuing bank donates a set amount to the charity/nonprofit.

The average contribution to the nonprofit from such cards is half a penny for every dollar you charge or transfer, according to Affinity card profits can add up for a charity or nonprofit when many people use the cards.

However, since affinity cards are usually connected with a mega-bank, your money also indirectly supports any problematic practices of that bank. Interest rates are often higher than with standard cards; annual percentage rates (APRs) on affinity cards range from 15-22 percent. Many charge annual fees, while most standard cards do not.

Working Assets Visa Card

Perhaps the greenest affinity card available is the Working Assets Visa card, which donates ten cents with every purchase to your choice of one of 50 nonprofits. It offers a 9.9 percent APR, with no annual fee. Working Assets also aims to serve as a progressive political force, dedicated to giving its customers the opportunity to speak out on critical public issues through its action Web site,, and long-distance telephone program. Recent actions included a call to Apple Computer to take back its used products (it recently agreed to take back old iPods). Each month, Working Assets customers generate over 80,000 calls and letters to politicians on social and environmental issues, says the company.

One caveat: Working Assets Visa is issued by MBNA, which has made large contributions to the Republican party and has been accused by consumers of predatory practices. The card used to be issued by Fleet One, but MBNA purchased the Working Assets program from Fleet.

Michael Kieschnick, Working Assets president, believes that the good his company does offsets any negatives from its association with MBNA: “Even though we did not select MBNA and have explicitly opposed their primary legislative agenda, we do believe that our program contributes significantly to progressive social change. Our credit card itself, since inception, has generated about $6 million in donations to progressive causes,” he says.

Tuesday, April 18, 2006


(submitted to Bank One 1996)

United Affirmative Action Development Corp (UAAD) is a 501c 3 non profit with its affiliation with United Equity Development Corporation (UEDC), is proposing a collaborative financial program with Participating Banks to encourage greater participation in African American and other minority communities, as part of an economic, community and human development initiative. UEDC’s primary goal is to provide financial institutions with solutions to existing problems commonly experienced by African Americans and other minorities, as it relates to standard banking and lending practices. UEDC will serve as a conduit using experienced marketing and public relations methods to encourage individuals, communities and businesses to take advantage of opportunities by utilizing financial institutions that are participants in this joint venture. Through this process, UEDC will penetrate untapped markets and provide them with the technical assistance required to qualify for personal, consumer, or commercial loans, as well as encourage them to use other services of the Participating Bank. In an effort to assure large numbers of participants in this process, UAAD/ UEDC’s professional staff has established objectives which are consistent with achieving its stated goal:

1. To target and secure cooperation with businesses, community projects, public housing developments and other geographically defined low-income neighborhoods that would benefit minorities, communities, businesses and the Participating Bank.

2. To provide expertise beneficial to minorities and encourage them to utilize available community supportive resources.

3. To provide assistance to minorities in credit repair, loan application preparation and prescribed methods of loan repayments.

4. To negotiate benefits and discounts for minorities with the Participating Banks.

5. To develop statistical data and conduct surveys regarding community needs.


6. To coordinate available resources, i.e., local, state, federal and financial institutions for the purpose of establishing relationships which result in developing long term economic development strategies for minority communities.

UAAD,s proposed concept focuses on four major areas. They are partnerships, economic development, research and community participation.

Partnerships pertain to methods of increasing linkages with large and small financial institutions, government institutions, professional consultants and other non-profit organizations that have a common interest in community investments. UAAD recognizes that such partnerships are mutually beneficial to all parties. The Participating Bank will gain access to untapped markets and UAAD will receive the fiscal support necessary to achieve its stated goal and objectives. The community receives benefits of direct linkages and easier access to available financial resources.

Economic Development issues consist of creating opportunities with private and public agencies, large and small businesses that are eligible to bid for public and private contracts with the support of the Participating Bank. In this process, UAAD will develop a five year educational and informational campaign to encourage and nurture the development of entrepreneurship within the minority communities. UAAD will expose these communities to the fundamental link between small business creation and community development. This will be done in coordination with organizations and institutions already established in this field, i.e., Small Business Administration, Southern University of New Orleans, etc.

Overall, UAAD has determined that more self-reliant and interdependent African American communities require solid research methodology and execution. For this reason, Research has been considered an integral part of this project. UAAD recognizes the necessity and importance of planning on the basis of quality information. Using the data and information collected, as the primary resource, UAAD will:

1. Interpret, analyze and make recommendations regarding trends and new program direction.

2. Research programs that will provide a vehicle whereby African American and other minority communities will participate in shaping their own financial future.


3. Include ways for African Americans and other minorities to invest in banking institutions within the communities that provide opportunities which result in financial growth and stimulation.

Through the Community Partnership process, UAAD will utilize available community resources, i.e., existing enterprises, small business administrations, community based organizations, churches, masjids, colleges, universities, and other agencies to create a vehicle through which extended partnerships are established. UAAD will provide training opportunities for individuals making a transition from school to work and encourage the expansion of employment opportunities for community members. While UAAD is concerned about expanding the enterprise sector of African Americans and minorities, it is equally concerned about assisting businesses owned by the stated groups to become more efficient, competitive and profitable.

Note: This project concept was submitted to Bank One 1996

The success of this project will be obtained through UAAD’s affiliation with UEDC and other for profit institutions. UAAD’s collaboration with Chase Bank will assist our associates in reaching economic parity in the communities that this bank serves.

In 1996 This is what Premier Bank and later Bank One said they would do at GSU and the City of Grambling, LA

First USA Partnership

Letter from First USA Partners 8/99
I would like to thank you for providing First USA Bank with the opportunity to bid on the affinity credit card business for UEDC. We are currently looking at groups with a membership or 20,000. Unfortunately your current membership of 2,500 does not meet the bank's present size requirements; therefore I must respectfully decline at this time. I wish you success with your organization and will be happy to reevaluate the opportunity as your membership grows.

Suzanne M. Devoe, Vice President Research


A Letter from Julia F. Johnson

Letter from Bank One Columbus, OH dated 2/96
Mr. Ellis,
As a follow up to our telephone conversation, I have exchanged calls with representatives of Premier Bank and they are aware that you and I have spoken. I have discussed your request for assistance with Aline Creed of Premier in Baton Rouge. She advises me that she and Nathan Thornton have been in contact with the bank's Public Funds Department and that they intend to visit with you at some date in the near future regarding facility needs in Grambling. I shared with Ms Creed our willingness to assist, and that our community development resources were available to her. I would encourage you to continue your dialogue with Ms. Creed and Mr. Thornton. They have assured me that they are making every effort to understand the scope of issues in Grambling and that they intend to fully respond to those issues. Please do not hesitate to contact Ms Creed if you have any continuing concerns. We look forward to be being of assistance and having the opportunity to address the lending needs of the Grambling market.

Julia F. Johnson, Senior Vice President

A Letter from L. Biff Motley

Senior Executive Vice Pres

Post Office Box 1511
Baton Rouge, La 70821

April 17, 1996 504 332 7021

Mr. Walter Ellis
United Affirmative Action Development Corp
P.O. Box 1076
Grambling, LA 71245

Dear Mr. Ellis,

Thank you for bringing your proposal to Premier Bank. We are always interested in better understanding the financial services needed by the people and the businesses in our community.
Regrettably, Premier cannot provide you with the $300,000 you requested which would be used by your organization as a research grant to find six month’s of operating expenses for a needs assessment study.
However, we have begun to explore the possibilities of a business relationship structured on loan referrals made by the United Affirmative Action Development Corporation. At present we are considering what the appropriate fee arrangement might be based on the dollar amount of the loan closed by the bank as a result of a referral. From our initial investigation a sliding scale appears to be the logical method to employ. Under this method the fee would be a percentage that decreases with the size of the loan with a per transaction cap. As I understand it, your clients would not contribute to the cost of the service your organization would be providing and we would not expect to pass the expense onto the borrower. Soto determine a price that is economically justified for the Bank, our business loan administration area will need to further evaluate a fee structure using product profitability models.
Please be advised that any business accepted on referral from United Affirmative Action Development Corporation will need to include acknowledgment from the applicant regarding any business arrangements between your organization and the Bank and waiver allowing the Bank to share the applicant’s financial information with third parties.
Thank you again for choosing Premier Bank soon to be known as Bank One, Louisiana, National, Association. I look forward to hearing more about the activities of you organization from Nathan Thornton and helping to serve the banking needs of your members and clients.


L. Biff Motley, EVP c: Julia Johnson
Aline Creed

Requests for Agreements

DATE: May 22, 1996
TO: Jim Austin
FROM: Aline Creed
RE: Request for Agreements
Jim, I need your help in preparing two agreements. One agreement would be between the bank and an organization that will be referring commercial loan customers to us. We have decided to pay the organization 1% of the principal loan amount up to $5,000 per transaction for business applicants brought to us by the organization and for whom a loan request is granted and closed. I want to be sure the agreement is clear on the following points:I. We will not pay if the applicant is an existing customer or comes to us directly without introduction by the organization.II. We will only pay for closed loans, not for applications or approvals not booked. I am concerned about a loan that might pay off immediately, so we may want to say the payment is for the first loan granted, but does not include subsequent extensions or renewals.III. We also want to be sure the applicant knows the organization’s role in that they are to help prepare the loan proposal and assist the borrower with the process – services for which they will be paid.The desire for this kind of disclosure to the ultimate borrower and the need to protect the bank regarding financial privacy issues leads to the need for a second agreement. This second agreement would be between the borrower and the organization acknowledging the fee and permitting the sharing of the borrower’s financial information between the bank and the organization. If the organization is to operate as planned, they would be obtaining financials, working up proposals and negotiating with the bank on behalf of the applicant. I want to be sure we are covered for both commercial situations and those that may wind up more consumer oriented, so we can pull a credit bureau, discuss the request, begin valuation of collateral, etc with the organization as well as the applicant. We also want to make sure the applicant knows the organization is not doing him a favor that it is in fact being paid.We have two or three requests for credit under this arrangement currently in process, so it is important that we get the first agreement worked up relatively soon, preferably in the next two weeks. Please let me know if this is not possible, so I can make arrangement with outside counsel. If you’ve got any questions please call me, Chuck Beard or Nathan Thornton. Thanks for your help.(UAAD received this fax on 5/25/96 @ 10:57 a.m. from 504-332-7295 Gen Bank Group/Premier Bank Marketing – Compliance)

On April 4, 2006, Chase Bank officials and Mr. David Lewis of the OCC, met with UAAD in Ruston, LA. Mr. Ruben Ramos stated he would put UAAD in touch with JPMorganChase Bank’s Affinity Credit Card Division within 24 hours, to discuss an Affinity Credit Card Agreement.

Presentation to JPMorganChase Bank of Louisiana
Community Partnership Division

The goals of our thrust with JPMorgan Chase Bank of Louisiana are as follows:
1. To establish and maintain an effective ongoing working relationship between Chase Bank and United Affirmative Action Development (UAAD) Corp.
2. To better acquaint the officers of JPMorgan Chase and other representatives of the banking and financial services community of the mission and goals of the UAAD Corporation as they pertain to the Community Re-investment Act of 1977.
3. To develop long-term partnership strategies designed to help bring economic parity and to eliminate inequitable lending practices for Louisiana citizens who have historically been disenfranchised by inequitable lending and financial accessibility practices.

The United Affirmative Action Development (UAAD) Corporation is a 501© 3 non-profit organization that was found in California in 1992 and began operation in Louisiana in 1996. UAAD is national in scope with emphasis on state and local initiatives developing and empowering low and income residents to initiate and to tailor the CRA investment and other financial and community resources to their specific community needs. This endeavor will assist African-Americans in achieving economic parity, while simultaneously establishing and maintaining effective working relationships with their respective participating local banks and other financial institutions.
The mission of UAAD is to serve as both a leader and a conduit in converging financial services with community and educational resources, such as Historical Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Our corporation is positioned to serve as the premier broker of financial services, with emphasis on the Community Re-investment Act (CRA) of 1977, between financial institutions and the target population.
This initial effort is designed to serve Louisiana residents who are African-Americans or members of other minority groups. Significantly, scholarship opportunities will be made available to African-American students enrolled or plan to enroll in HBCU institutions. Grambling State University will serve as our pilot project for this initiative. Particular emphasis will be given to help residents negatively impacted by Hurricane Katrina in their continuing restabilizing efforts.
As aforementioned, UAAD plans to increase economic parity for low and moderate-income citizens of Louisiana with a concentration on the African-American population.
Under the auspices of CRA, our corporation proposes to accomplish this broad and complex objective through varied and mixed approaches to include, but not limited to, the following strategies:
1. To establish and maintain long-term effective collaborative relationships with and between a broad range of entities such as banks and other lending institutions, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Civil Rights organizations, churches and faith-based institutions, and self-help and grassroots organizations. Both traditional and non-traditional students would be encouraged to pursue careers in banking and financial services, computer and technology, and International fields.
2. To establish Business Development Centers (BDC) centers throughout the State of Louisiana, providing both accessibility and the necessary financial literacy training to enable members of the target population to acquire the necessary education and tools to become and remain financial solvent, and thereby self-sufficient in society. These centers will be holistic as they will help to establish family-owned businesses, to include dislocated citizens, as well as other entrepreneurial programs.
3. To insure that any African-American high school or adult student, who is a resident of Louisiana, desiring a post secondary education is given that opportunity through a scholarship program made available through the Community Re-investment Act (CRA).
4. As a long-term preventive and intervention strategy, to work with the education systems, at both the state and district levels, to incorporate financial literacy programs into the education curriculum, enable our young people to enter adulthood and life with a sound knowledge of how our economic and financial systems are structured, and of equal importance, how it impacts them individually and collectively
Louisiana Association of Non-profit Organizations (LANO)
Recycling Black Dollars - national in scope, based in Los Angeles, California
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)
Louisiana banking institutions to include, but not limited to, JPMorgan Chase,
One United Bank and Liberty Bank
NAACP Branches – State of Louisiana
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)


An undetermined majority of profits from United Equity Development Corporation (UEDC), the for profit, will be contributed to United Affirmative Action Development Corp (UAAD, the non-profit, to make it self sufficient. This determination will be made by the CEO and the Board of Directors.
It is anticipated that UAAD a 501c3 non-profit will be successful with little or no anticipated contributions from Chase or any other contributor. UAAD and UEDC will ask and demand that JPMorganChase Bank provide contributions and commitments to CRA in the amount of at least $800 billion for the next 10 years, reparation and to education components of their commitments such as “Smart Start of Louisiana”.
This proposal is based on a ten year feasibility study, using various banks and financial institutions’ statistical analysis to determine the workability and implementation. See:

I. Potential Members: Plus 20,000,000
II. Benefits for UEDC/UAAD Members:
a. Affinity Credit Cards (low interest rates)
b. Reduced Cellular Phone Rates
c. Discount Auto Rates
d. Other Member Benefits

III. Truckers:
a. All of the above
b. Pre-Paid Legal
c. Other added benefits
d. Discount Truck Rates


Potential Members – First Year
50,000 – Students, HBUC’s, and Family - 100,000
100,000 – UEDC’s Truckers Assoc.- 1,000,000
3,000 – GSU
20,000 – Lincoln Parish
50,000 - Fayetteville, NC
100,000 – RBD
1,623,000 – sub-total

Average Membership Fee - $10.00
Truckers’ Membership Fee - $60 per month

Memberships Fees:
Low Income $1.00 (may be waived)
Military $1.00
Moderate Income $10.00
Middle Income $100.00
Upper Income & Organizations $500.00
Truckers $50.00 per month (to include prepaid legal, affinity card and other benefits)

Upon development UEDC propose that all members will own at least one share of stock in Chase Bank and at least one share in UEDC.
Middle income will own one share of Chase Bank and one share per $10.00 contributed to UEDC when going public.

UEDC anticipates and promotes that members and associates contribute in order that their family members, friends and loved ones own individual shares in order that UEDC will be able to vote their shares in proxy. This will allow UEDC to influence the participating bank in recognizing UEDC’s influence.

Other Benefits:
Reduced rate Visa
Reduced rate Legal Fees
Reduced rate Phone Service – Verizon
Discount Vehicle Purchases - DiamlerChrysler

Monday, April 17, 2006

& the City of Grambling, Louisiana

March 8, 2006

UEDC will develop numerous businesses at GSU. “S” corporations will be established to operate the various business(s). These “S” corporations will allow some students to manage or own their corporation or Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) upon graduation, or when feasible.
Walter Ellis will contribute his expertise of 40 years in the auto and truck industry in establishing some of these businesses. A recent trucking business that has been inactive for several months can immediately be revamped. This business consists of transporting motorcycles and automobiles for hire. The major expense in re-organizing would be computer, telephone and minor office equipment. Students would be taught dispatch procedures, office management skills etc.. Limited salaries will paid to office and management personal. All will participate in the profit of the operation. A system will be devised to allow some chosen to become LLP.
UEDC will establish a Verizon store.
Discount phone rates for UAAD members
UEDC will negotiate an agreement with a rental car company.
UEDC will negotiate a dealership with Freightliner
UEDC will negotiate a dealership with Daimler Chrysler.
UEDC will establish a Truck Drivers Institute.

Re-Development of Grambling, LA;
Hotels, motels
Shopping center
African American owned bank (JPMorganChase Bank “Smart Start” funded.
UEDC intend to work with city officials and GSU in forming a long range redevelopment plan that will address the heir problems that exist in Grambling in particular. Such solutions will contribute to how to protect property rights in New Orleans and elsewhere in Louisiana. Those whose property will be included in this re-development will be offered a fair market price for their property, and an offer to become a LLP in the development. For instance there is a building on R.W. Jones that may be for sale. UEDC would offer the seller a 51% LLP and monthly payments on an agreed price. All other property purchase offers would follow these guidelines.

With past and present negotiations UAAD have entered with JPMorganChase Bank we intend to persuade this bank to utilize its’ CRA, Community Partnership, “Smart Start”, or “Reparation” funding to further these and other projects.

UEDC Re-Train/Re-Tain Truck Driving Institute

UEDC has developed the “Re-Train/Re-Tain” Program for individual drivers and groups who have demonstrated a need for more safety and skill training. The curriculum is based on the PDTI approved curriculum, which has been adopted by UEDC as the Basic Truck Driving Training Program.

The Program will include:
· Six days of intensive, full-time training
· Eight hours of Simulator Training with various loads, weather conditions, highway types
· Four hours of behind the wheel, on the road practice
· 24 hours of class room instruction
· Eight hours of discussion
· Four hours of evaluation and personal assistance
· Testing and review on a daily basis
· Interview and review problem areas with the student
· Setting goals and monitoring progress
· One-hour road test and issuance of a certificate upon successful completion of the course

The carrier/shipper/employer will be provided with a video of the student’s performance.
The Program will evaluate and correct issues in basic truck driving: Shifting techniques, backing-up procedures, safe lane changes, braking, vehicle safety checks, and the proper securing of trailers and loads. Over and above the safety aspects will be a training component on improving fuel economy and reducing maintenance costs. This is vital to profitability on older trucks where the driver becomes the “computer” for fuel management and there is significant wear-and-tear on most components. This aspect of training also has value for operators of new tractors to help reduce downtime and charges for non-warranty repairs due to mishandling of the equipment.

Even experienced drivers with excellent driving records can benefit since it is easy to discover unsafe habits through the computer simulator. The newer driver will encounter many new situations including accident conditions and suggest collision avoidance solutions that will help reduce accidents.


The institute will provide customized training or retraining for drivers who have been involved in accidents, excessive violations, or who need additional training. Retraining will include classroom when needed. Simulators will provide the student and customer test and visual results of the student’s progress.

This training or retraining will be billed @ $200.00 (two hundred dollars) per hour per student on site or at UEDC facilities. When there is a need for advance simulator involvement, UEDC will provide such at GE Capitol/I-Sim facilities.

Students who choose to do so may become members of UEDC Truck Association (cost $200.00 a year). This membership provides its members the ability to refresh on the simulator upon receiving a moving violation citation or twice a year on appointment. The association also offers other benefits to the drivers.

6 students
6 x $2500 = $15,000

Simulator Monthly Lease $425.00
Lodging (6 rooms for $40 a night for 6 nights) 1540.00
Daily lunch (delivered) and Graduation Dinner 480.00
Mini-Van Rental (inc. Liability Insurance and Medical Payments)
to transport students 250.00
Instructor Salary (weekly) 1000.00
Assistant Salary (weekly) 300.00
SCM for OTR Training 500.00
Utilities (telephone, electric) monthly 100.00
Graduation Certificates and awards 50.00
Misc. Admin. And office expenses 100.00
UEDC Member Dues (Annual pre-pay) 180.00

United Equity Development Corporation

First: _______________________ MI: ___ Last: ____________________ Suffix (Sr., Jr., etc)____

Mailing Address: _________________________________________________________

City: ______________________ State: _____ Zip: ___________

Home: (____) ____ - _____ Cellular Phone: (____) ____ - _____ Pager : (____) ____ - _____

FAX : (____) ____ - ______ E-mail: _____________@__________ CDL# ____________State :___

Classification: ___ Independent Owner-Operator ___ W-2 Employee Driver ___ Student
___ Small Trucking Company Owner (#___ of Trucks) ___ Other
Please take a moment to complete this short survey. It will help us to better serve the needs of the membership and to build political clout. Your personal information is considered private and confidential and will be aggregated with all members to describe the strength of our groups and its concerns.
Type of Driving: ___ Local ___ Container ___ Short Haul ___ Long Haul

Typical trailer: ___ Box ___ Flatbed ___ Refrigerator ___ Center Drop/Dump
___ Livestock___ Auto Carrier ___ Other (please describe____________)

Are you Haz Mat Licensed? ___ Yes ___ No
Are you registered to vote? ___ Yes ___ No If No, are you Eligible to vote? ___ Yes ___ No
If are you registered to vote is it via Absentee (Mail-in) Ballot? ___ Yes ___ No